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Geopolitics conflicts

Europe

EUROPE

  • EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN: Greece has rejected new calls by Turkey to start exploratory talks to settle their maritime differences, feeding into a long-running and dangerous energy standoff in the eastern Mediterranean. The snub comes as Greece tries to increase pressure on its European allies to impose sanctions on Turkey during a summit next week.

SOURCE: VOA NEWS

 

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Europe

EUROPE

  • EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN:  Greece and Egypt -that signed a maritime deal setting out respective exclusive economic zones- expect US President-elect Joe Biden’s incoming administration to play a more active role in attempting to calm growing tensions in the eastern Mediterranean. Greece and Egypt are at odds with Turkey in a tense maritime boundary dispute in the eastern Mediterranean about rights to search for and exploit natural gas deposits.

SOURCE: AL JAZEERA

 

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Europe

EUROPE

  • EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN: The foreign ministers of Turkey and Greece met for the first time since tensions erupted between the two over the eastern Mediterranean’s energy rights and maritime borders demarcation. The meeting signals a positive step towards easing tensions.

SOURCE: MIDDLE EAST MONITOR

 

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Europe

EUROPE

  • CYPRUS: Turkey provoked a new crisis with Cyprus with plans to extend its illegal occupation of part of the island to include an area called Varosha, a beach area that has been abandoned after Ankara expelled Greek Cypriots from the northern part of the island. The move has been condemned by Russia, the EU and UN. The provocation is of importance to the region, as Israel is becoming a key ally of Cyprus and Greece with a new gas deal (that collides with the interests of Turkey).

SOURCE: JERUSALEM POST

 

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Africa

AFRICA

  • LIBYA: Turkey will continue to support Libya’s government with training, consultation, and other support, Turkey’s National Defense Ministry said. It added that an agreement signed “determining the maritime jurisdictional zones between Turkey and Libya registered by the UN” its case for claiming its fair share of energy resources in the Eastern Mediterranean, against Greece’s maximalist claims flouting international law.

SOURCE: YENISAFAK

 

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Expert Analysis

Russia’s Cypriot-Turkish ‘Balancing’ Act Is Risky But Respectable

Russia’s Cypriot-Turkish ‘Balancing’ Act Is Risky But Respectable

 
9 SEPTEMBER 2020

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Russia’s attempt to “balance” between Cyprus and Turkey is a risky attempt to expand its influence in the Eastern Mediterranean since it could backfire if either of them begins to distrust its motives by suspecting Moscow of more closely siding with one over the other, but it’s also respectable in the sense that the Eurasian Great Power is objectively the best possible country to mediate between these two rival states since it enjoys strategic relations with both.

Russia’s “Balancing” Act

Russia’s 21st-century grand strategy envisions the country functioning as the supreme “balancing” force in Eurasia, and despite the author’s constructive criticisms about its execution, it remains among the most promising foreign policies in the world by virtue of Russia’s advantageous geography and historic diplomatic skills which uniquely enable it to potentially succeed with this ambitious goal. Moscow recently signaled interest in helping Cyprus and Turkey mediate their long-standing dispute in the Eastern Mediterranean provided that both sides request it, but this could backfire if either of them begins to distrust its motives by suspecting that Russia is more closely siding with one over the other. Nevertheless, it’s also respectable in the sense that the Eurasian Great Power is objectively the best possible country to mediate between these two rival states since it enjoys strategic relations with both.

Containing” Turkey

In recent years, however, Russia has visibly moved closer to Turkey while the latter’s historic American ally has shifted towards Greece and Cyprus. The reason for this is that some in Ankara suspected the US of being involved in the failed summer 2016 coup attempt against President Erdogan, after which Turkey actively engaged Russia exactly as the author predicted at the time while the US reacted by bolstering its ties with Turkey’s Hellenic rivals. The second-mentioned development recently took the form of Athens reinvigorating its military alliance with Washington last year and the US partially lifting its arms embargo on Nicosia earlier this month. In addition, tensions have spiked between those two and Turkey over their conflicting claims in the Eastern Mediterranean through which the Greece-”Israel”-Cyprus (GRISCY) pipeline is expected to pass. Cyprus and Greece also managed to successfully multilateralize their disputes with Turkey after jointly hosting maritime drills with France and Italy in the region. Evidently, a regional coalition is forming to “contain” Turkey.

Balancing” Basics

The essence of Russia’s “balancing” act is that it tends to side with what it perceives to be the “weaker” party in order to restore strategic parity so as to avoid a military conflict between the rival sides, but it only engages the aforementioned state if it believes that it has something of tangible significance to gain by doing so (e.g. promises of profitable economic deals, etc.). For instance, Russian military support to Syria wasn’t just to eliminate ISIS terrorists of Russian and Central Asian origin, but also to make itself the indispensable diplomatic force for resolving that country’s conflict which in turn will reshape Mideast geopolitics. It seemed for a few years to have been sympathetic to Iran and Hezbollah’s military roles there too since those two were considered to be weaker than “Israel”, but then started supporting “Israel” a lot more than those other two once it came to believe that they’d become stronger than the self-professed “Jewish State”. This isn’t to argue whether those assessments are all correct, but just to explain Russia’s Mideast “balancing” act.

The Strategic Basis Of Russian-Turkish Ties

The pertinence of this insight to the Cyprus-Turkish dimension of this grand strategy is that the island nation is obviously the weaker of the two if a back-to-back comparison is made but it’s been able to assemble a regional coalition in its support comprising Greece, France, Italy, and presumably also “Israel” and the US if the proverbial push came to shove. This means that Nicosia has more of an edge against Ankara than one might realize, thus leading to the conclusion that Turkey is being “contained” and thus is “comparatively weaker” when viewed from this perspective. This understanding explains why Russia tends to give off the perception of supporting Turkey so much (mostly in the passive sense of not getting in its way in Syria for example) since it believes that aiding Ankara can help restore strategic parity in the region between the Anatolian state and the coalition that’s forming to “contain” it. Nevertheless, some might argue that Russia’s “passive facilitation” of Turkey’s regional policy contributed to the “security dilemma” that sparked that aforesaid coalition’s formation.

Quid Pro Quo

In any case, the question to be asked is why Russia has decided to engage Cyprus at this moment in time and whether it truly believes that its efforts will be not only appreciated, but even rewarded if successful. What Moscow aims to do is expand its influence in the Eastern Mediterranean through diplomatic means via its “balancing” act, hoping that it can become a relevant player in this matrix of interests to the point where it’s able to shape the course of events. More specifically, it hopes to entice Cyprus into lessening its recent dependence on Western security guarantees in the event that it can somehow convince Turkey to support a political “compromise” on unifying the island and thus mitigating the tensions between those two. In exchange, Russia would probably like for its energy companies to play a role in GRISCY (agreed to both by Nicosia and Ankara’s surrogates in the self-described entity of the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” following unification). A naval base somewhere on the island, or at least military-logistics rights, would be a plus too.

Success Is Far From Assured

For as ambitious as Russia’s aims are, it’s difficult to imagine Moscow implementing them. It hasn’t proposed any novel solution to Cypriot-Turkish tensions (at least not yet) so neither of them have much interest in requesting its support in any practical sense. Moreover, while mediation by a neutral third party such as Russia can be helpful, it proverbially takes two to tango, hence why both sides must request this and it’s unlikely that they’ll come to such an agreement. Even if they do, mediation might not be needed indefinitely if they come to realize that it’s more effective to simply discuss their issues bilaterally. Another issue is that the Kremlin masterfully practices realpolitik (“balancing”) nowadays to the extent that it doesn’t regard itself as having any historical-cultural commitments to anyone else (e.g. supporting Cyprus just because most of its people are fellow Orthodox Christians). As such, Cyprus might not trust Russia, and Moscow might not want to provoke Ankara’s ire by doing anything to earn Nicosia’s trust which could be perceived as being at Turkey’s expense.

Concluding Thoughts

Russia should be commended for its sincere desire to resolve the dangerous tensions between its Cypriot and Turkish strategic partners, but one shouldn’t get any false hopes about the likelihood of it succeeding. It’s enough to signal its positive intent for this gesture to have its intended soft power effect, but actually executing it in the unlikely event that both sides request its mediation might be more troublesome than many might think. Moscow would have to tread extremely carefully to avoid triggering a “security dilemma” with Ankara wherein its counterpart comes to regard Russia as contributing to its “containment” if Turkey begins to think that it’s taking Cyprus’ side. Unlike Cyprus which can’t really impose any meaningful costs upon Russia, Turkey could limit military coordination in Syria, create issues of a speculative nature with Turkish Stream, and potentially impose non-tariff barriers to commercial relations. With this in mind, some in Moscow might cynically hope that Cyprus and Turkey don’t take up Russia’s (mostly rhetorical?) mediation offer.

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American political analyst

Tags: Russia, Cyprus, Turkey, Greece, Israel, GRISCY, Energy Geopolitics, Balancing, Eastern Mediterranean.

Categories
Geopolitics conflicts

Europe (Mediterranean)

EUROPE:

  • Turkey has announced that Russia will hold live-fire naval exercises in the eastern Mediterranean, amid escalating tensions between Turkey and its coastal neighbors Greece and Cyprus over rights to search for energy resources in the region. The move could clearly be a message from Moscow that it remains a major regional player whose influence won’t be diminished by Washington.

SOURCE: THE WASHINGTON POST

 

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Europe (Mediterranean)

EUROPE:

  • Turkey had conducted exercises with a U.S. Navy destroyer in the Eastern Mediterranean, hours after Greece began war games with France and EU allies nearby (see also GGN GEOPOLITICS Mediterranean August 2020).

SOURCE: DAILY SABAH

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Geopolitics conflicts

Europe (Mediterranean)

EUROPE:

  • MEDITERRANEAN: Greece announced that it will conduct a navy and air force exercise in a part of the Eastern Mediterranean where Turkey is prospecting for oil and gas as the uneasy neighboring countries remain locked in a dispute over offshore energy rights.

SOURCE: DAILYSABAH

 

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Europe (Mediterranean)

EUROPE:

  • France will boost its military presence in the eastern Mediterranean. They asked Turkey to cease oil and gas exploration in contested waters that has spurred tensions with Greece.  Meanwhile, Israel announced it stands behind Greece.

SOURCE: DW ISRAELHAYOM

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